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          安全网 safety net
          按可比口径 on comparable basis
          按轻重?#26477;?to prioritize
          暗补 implicit subsidy
          暗亏 hidden loss

          颁发营业执照 to license; to grant a licence to
          办理存款业务 to take deposits
          保护农民的生产积极性 to protect farmers' incentive to produce
          备付金(超额?#24613;?#37329;) excess reserves
          本外币并账 consolidation of domestic and foreign currency accounts
          本外币对冲操作 sterilization operation
          本位利益 localized interest; departmentalism
          奔小康 to strive to prosper;to strive to become well-to-do
          避税(请见"逃税") tax avoidance
          币?#25191;?#37197;不当 currency mismatch
          币种构成 currency composition
          变相社会集资 disguised irregular (or illegal) fund raising
          表外科目(业务) off-balance-sheet items (operation)
          薄弱环节 weaknesses; loopholes
          不变成本 fixed cost
          不变价 at constant price; in real terms
          不动产 real estate
          不良贷款(资产) problem loans; non-performing loans (assets)

          财务公司 finance companies
          财政赤字 fiscal deficit
          财政挤银行 fiscal pressure on the central bank (over monetary policy)
          财政政策与货币政策的配合 coordination of fiscal and monetary policies
          采取循序渐进的方法 in a phased and sequenced manner
          操作弹性 operational flexibility
          操纵汇率 to manipulate exchange rate
          产品构成 product composition; product mix
          产品积压 stock pile; excessive inventory
          产销率 current period inventory; (即期库存,?#32531;?#21069;期库存) sales/outputratio
          产业政策 industrial policy
          长期国债 treasury bonds
          敞口头寸 open position
          炒股 to speculate in the stock market
          承购包销 underwrite (securities)
          成套机电产品 complete sets of equipment; complete plant (s)
          城?#34892;?#29992;社 urban credit cooperatives (UCCs)
          城市合作银行 urban cooperative banks; municipal united banks
          城市商业银行 municipal commercial banks
          城乡居民收入增长超过物价涨幅 real growth in household income
          持续升温 persistent overheating
          重复布点 duplicate projects
          重置成本 replacement cost
          重组计划 restructuring plan
          筹资渠道 funding sources; financing channels
          初见成效 initial success
          出口统一管理、归口经营 canalization of exports
          出口退税 export tax rebate
          储蓄存款 household deposits (不完全等同于西方的 savings deposits, 前者包括活期存款,后者不包括。)
          储蓄分流 diversion of household deposits
          储源萎缩 decline in the availability of household savings
          传导机制 transmission mechanism
          从价税 ad valorem tax
          从紧控制 tight control
          存贷款比例 loan/deposit ratio
          存款保险体系 deposit insurance system
          存款货币银行 deposit money banks
          存款?#24613;?#37329; required reserves

          打白条 issue IOU
          大额存单 certificate of deposit (CD)
          大额提现 withdraw deposits in large amounts
          大面积滑坡 wide-spread decline
          大一?#36710;?#38134;行体制 (all-in-one) mono-bank system
          呆账(请见"坏账") bad loans
          呆账?#24613;?#37329; loan loss reserves (provisions)
          呆滞贷款 idle loans
          贷款沉淀 non-performing loans
          贷款分类 loan classification
          贷款限额管理 credit control; to impose credit ceiling
          贷款约束机制 credit disciplinary (constraint) mechanism
          代理国库 to act as fiscal agent
          代理金融机构贷款 make loans on behalf of other institutions
          戴帽贷款 ear-marked loans
          倒逼机制 reversed transmission of the pressure for easing monetary condition
          道德风险 moral hazard
          地区差别 regional disparity
          第一产业 the primary industry
          第二产业 the secondary industry
          第三产业 the service industry; the tertiary industry
          递延资产 deferrable assets
          订货不足 insufficient orders
          定期存款 time deposits
          定向募集 raising funds from targeted sources
          东道国(请见"母国") host country
          独立核算 independent accounting
          短期国债 treasury bills
          对冲操作 sterilization operation; hedging
          对非金融部门债权 claims on non-financial sector
          多种所有制?#38382;?diversified ownership

          恶性通货膨胀 hyperinflation
          二级市场 secondary market

          发行货币 to issue currency
          发行总股本 total stock issue
          法定?#24613;?#37329; required reserves; reserve requirement
          法人股 institutional shares
          法人股东 institutional shareholders
          法治 rule of law
          房地产投资 real estate investment
          放松银根 to ease monetary policy
          非现场稽核 off-site surveillance (or monitoring)
          非银行金融机构 non-bank financial institutions
          非赢利性机构 non-profit organizations
          分税制 assignment of central and local taxes; tax assignment system
          分业经营 segregation of financial business (services); division of business scope based on the type of financial institutions
          风险暴露(风险敞口) risk exposure
          风险管理 risk management
          风险意识 risk awarenes
          风险资本比例 risk-weighted capital ratios
          风险资本标准 risk-based capital standard
          服务事业收入 public service charges; user's charges
          扶贫 poverty alleviation
          负增长 negative growth
          ?#35789;?#39044;算制 double-entry budgeting; capital and current budgetary account

          ?#27597;?#35797;点 reform experimentation
          杠杆率 leverage ratio
          杠杆收购 leveraged buyout
          高息集资 to raise funds by offering high interest
          个人股 non-institutional shares
          根本扭转 fundamental turnaround (or reversal)
          公开市场操作 open market operations
          公款私存 deposit public funds in personal accounts
          公用事业 public utilities
          公有经济 the state-owned sector; the public sector
          公有制 public ownership
          工业成本利润率 profit-to-cost ratio
          工业增加值 industrial value added
          供大于求 supply exceeding demand; excessive supply
          鼓励措施 incentives
          股份合作企业 joint-equity cooperative enterprises
          股份制企业 joint-equity enterprises
          股份制银行 joint-equity banks
          固定资产贷款 fixed asset loans
          关税减免 tariff reduction and exemption
          关税减让 tariff concessions
          关税优惠 tariff incentives; preferential tariff treatment
          规范行为 to regularize (or standardize)...behavior
          规模效益 economies of scale
          国计民生 national interest and people's livelihood
          国家对个人其他支出 other government outlays to individuals
          国家风险 country risk
          国际分工 international division of labor
          国际收支 balance of payments
          国有独资商业银行 wholly state-owned commercial banks
          国有经济(部门) the state-owned (or public) sector
          国有企业 state-owned enterprises (SOEs)
          国有制 state-ownership
          国有资产流失 erosion of state assets
          国债回购 government securities repurchase
          国债一级自营商 primary underwriters of government securities
          过度竞争 excessive competition
          过度膨胀 excessive expansion
          过热迹象 signs of overheating

          合理预期 rational expectation
          核心资本 core capital
          合资企业 joint-venture enterprises
          红利 dividend
          宏观经济运营良好 sound macroeconomic performance
          宏观经济基本状况 macroeconomic fundamentals
          宏观调控 macroeconomic management (or adjustment)
          宏观调控目标 macroeconomic objectives (or targets)
          坏账 bad debt
          还本付息 debt service
          换汇成本 unit export cost;local currency cost of export earnings
          汇兑在途 funds in float
          汇兑支出 advance payment of remittance by the beneficiary's bank
          汇率并轨 unification of exchange rates
          活期存款 demand deposits
          汇率失调 exchange rate misalignment
          混合所有制 diversified (mixed) ownership
          货币政策态势 monetary policy stance
          货款拖欠 overdue obligations to suppliers
          基本建设投资 investment in infrastructure
          基本经济要素 economic fundamentals
          基本?#35782;?broadly appropriate
          基准利率 benchmark interest rate
          机关团体存款 deposits of non-profit institutions
          机会成本 opportunity cost
          激励机制 incentive mechanism
          积压严重 heavy stockpile; excessive inventory
          挤提存款 run on banks
          挤占挪用 unwarranted diversion of (financial) resources(from designated uses)
          技改投资 investment in technological upgrading
          ?#38469;?#23494;集型产品 technology-intensive product
          计划单列市 municipalities with independent planning status
          计划经济 planned economy
          集体经济 the collective sector
          加大结构调整力度 to intensify structural adjustment
          加工贸易 processing trade
          加快态势 accelerating trend
          加强税?#29031;?#31649;稽查 to enhance tax administration
          加权价 weighted average price
          价格放开 price liberalization
          价格形成机制 pricing mechanism
          减亏 to reduce losses
          简化手续 to cut red tape; to simplify (streamline) procedures
          交投活跃 brisk trading
          缴存?#24613;?#37329; to deposit required reserves
          结构扭曲 structural distortion
          结构失调 structural imbalance
          结构性矛盾突出 acute structural imbalance
          结构优化 structural improvement (optimization)
          结汇、售汇 sale and purchase of foreign exchange
          金融脆弱 financial fragility
          金融动荡 financial turbulence
          金融风波 financial disturbance
          金融恐慌 financial panic
          金融危机 financial crisis
          金融压抑 financial repression
          金融衍生物 financial derivatives
          金融诈骗 financial fraud
          紧缩银根 to tighten monetary policy
          紧缩政策 austerity policies; tight financial policies
          经常账户可?#19968;?current account convertibility
          经济特区 special economic zones (SEZs)
          经济体制?#27597;?economic reform
          经济增长方式的转变 change in the main source of economic growth (from investment expansion to efficiency gains)
          经济增长减速 economic slowdown;moderation in economic growth
          经济制裁 economic sanction
          经营自主权 autonomy in management
          景气回升 recovery in business activity
          境外投资 overseas investment
          竞争加剧 intensifying competition
          局部性金融风波 localized (isolated) financial disturbance
          开办人民币业务 to engage in RMB business
          可维持(可持续)经济增长 sustainable economic growth
          可变成本 variable cost
          可自由?#19968;?#36135;币 freely convertible currency
          控?#33889;?#37329;投放 control currency issuance
          扣除物价因素 in real terms; on inflation-adjusted basis
          库存产品 inventory
          跨国银行业务 cross-border banking
          跨年度采购 cross-year procurement
          会计准则 accounting standard

          来料加工 processing of imported materials for export
          离岸银行业务 off-shore banking (business)
          理顺外?#31243;?#21046; to rationalize foreign trade regime
          利率杠杆的调节作用 the role of interest rates in resource allocation
          利润驱动 profit-driven
          利息回收率 interest collection ratio
          联行清算 inter-bank settlement
          连锁企业 franchise (businesses); chain businesses
          良性循环 virtuous cycle
          两极分化 growing income disparity;polarization in income distribution
          零售物价指数 retail price index (RPI)
          流动性比例 liquidity ratio
          流动资产周转率/流通速度 velocity of liquid assets
          流动资金贷款 working capital loans
          流通体制 distribution system
          流通网络 distribution network
          留?#28023;?#31199;赁期满时承租人可购买租赁物) hire purchase
          垄断行业 monopolized industry (sector)
          乱集资 irregular (illegal) fund raising
          乱收费 irregular (illegal) charges
          乱摊派 unjustified (arbitrary) levies

          买方市场 buyer's market
          卖方市场 seller's market
          卖出回购证券 matched sale of repo
          贸易差额 trade balance
          民间信用 non-institutionalized credit
          免二减三 exemption of income tax for the first two years of making profit and 50% tax reduction for the following three years
          明补 explicit subsidy
          明亏 explicit loss
          名牌产品 brand products
          母国(请见"东道国") home country

          内部控制 internal control
          内?#21487;?#35745; internal audit
          内地与香港 the mainland and Hong Kong
          内债 domestic debt
          扭亏为盈 to turn a loss-making enterprise into a profitable one
          扭曲金融分配 distorted allocation of financial resources
          农副产品采购支出 outlays for agricultural procurement
          农村信用社 rural credit cooperatives (RCCs)

          泡沫效应 bubble effect
          泡沫经济 bubble economy
          培育新的经济增长点 to tap new sources of economic growth
          片面?#38750;?#21457;?#39038;?#24230; excessive pursuit of growth
          平衡发展 balanced development
          瓶颈制约 bottleneck (constraints)
          平稳回升 steady recovery
          铺底流动资金 initial (start-up) working capital
          普遍回升 broad-based recovery
          配套?#27597;?concomitant (supporting) reforms
          配套人民币资金 local currency funding of...

          企业办社会 enterprises burdened with social responsibilities
          企业集团战略 corporate group strategy
          企业兼并重组 company merger and restructuring
          企业领导班子 enterprise management
          企业所得税 enterprise (corporate) income tax
          企业效益 corporate profitability
          企业资金违规流入股市 irregular flow of enterprise funds into the stock market
          欠税 tax arrears
          欠息 overdue interest
          强化税?#29031;?#31649; to strengthen tax administration
          强制措施 enforcement action
          翘尾因素 carryover effect
          切一刀 partial application
          清理收回贷款 clean up and recover loans
          (破产)清算 liquidation
          倾斜政策 preferential policy
          区别对待 differential treatment
          趋势加强 intensifying trend
          全球化 globalization
          权益回报率 returns on equity (ROE)
          缺乏后劲 unsustainable momentum

          绕规模贷款 to circumvent credit ceiling
          ?#21496;?#22269;内生产总值 per capita GDP
          ?#21496;?#25910;入 per capita income
          人民币升值压力 upward pressure on the Renminbi (exchange rate)
          认缴资本 subscribed capital
          软贷款 soft loans
          软预算约束 soft budget constraint
          软着陆 soft landing

          三角债 chain debts; inter-enterprise arrears
          善政廉政 good governance
          商业贷款 commercial loans
          上市公司 (publicly) listed corporations
          设备利用 capacity utilization
          社会保障 social safety net; social security (insurance)
          深层次矛盾 deep-rooted structural imbalance
          审批金融机构 to license financial institutions
          审慎监管 prudential supervision
          生产能力闲置 unutilized capacity
          生息资产 interest-bearing assets
          ?#23548;?#21033;用外资 disbursement of foreign capital;actual inflow of foreign investment
          ?#23548;?#26377;效汇率 real effective exchange rate
          实时 real time
          实收资本 paid-in capital
          实现利润 realized profit
          市场分割 market segmentation
          市场经济 market economy
          市场?#21152;新剩?#24066;场份额) market share
          市场准入 market access (指商品和劳务的进入);market entry (指机构的审批)
          市价总值 market capitalization
          ?#35782;?#20174;紧 appropriately tight
          适时调节 timely adjustment
          收回对金融机构贷款 to recall central bank loans (to financial institutions)
          税后还贷 amortization (repayment of loans) after tax
          税收流失 tax erosion
          税源不足 weak tax base
          私营经济(私?#21496;?#27982;) the private sector
          私有制 private ownership
          所有者权益 owner's equity

          逃税(请见"避税") tax evasion
          套汇 (?#20445;?#25351;合法:currency swap; arbitrage
          (2)指非法:illegal purchase of foreign exchange
          剔除季节性因素 seasonally adjusted
          调节流动性 to influence liquidity level
          贴?#25191;?#21475; discount window
          同比 on year-on-year basis;over the same period of the previous year
          同业拆借(放) inter-bank borrowing (lending)
          同业拆借市场利率(中国) CHIBOR (China inter-bank offered rate)
          同业融通?#26412;?inter-bank financing bills
          同业往来 inter-bank transactions
          透支 overdraft
          退税 tax refund (rebate)
          头寸 position
          吞吐基础货币 adjustment of monetary base
          脱媒现象 disintermediation

          外?#21487;?#35745; external audit
          外国直接投资 foreign direct investment (FDI)
          外汇储备 foreign exchange reserves
          外汇调剂 foreign exchange swap
          外汇占款 the RMB counterpart of foreign exchange reserves;the RMB equivalent of offcial foreign exchange holdings
          外向型经济 export-oriented economy
          外债 external debt
          外资企业 foreign-funded enterprises
          完?#33889;执?#20225;业制度 to improve the modern enterprise system
          完税凭证 tax payment documentation
          违法经营 illegal business
          委托存款 entrusted deposits
          稳步增长 steady growth
          稳健的银行系统 a sound banking system
          稳中求进 to make progress while ensuring stability
          无纸交易 book-entry (or paperless/scriptless) transaction
          物价监测 price monitoring

          吸纳流动性 to absorb liquidity
          稀?#26412;?#27982; scarcity economy
          洗钱 money laundering
          系统内调度 fund allocation within a bank
          系统性金融危机 systemic financial crisis
          下岗工人 laid-off employees
          下游企业 down-stream enterprises
          现场稽核 on-site examination
          现金滞留(居民?#31181;校?cash held outside the banking system
          乡镇企业 township and village enterprises (TVEs)
          消费物价指数 consumer price index (CPI)
          消费税 excise (consumption) tax
          消灭财政赤字 to balance the budget; to eliminate fiscal deficit
          销货款回笼 reflow of corporate sales income to the banking system
          销售平淡 lackluster sales
          协议外资金额 committed amount of foreign investment
          新经济增长点 new sources of economic growth
          新开工项目 new projects; newly started projects
          新增贷款 incremental credit; loan increment; credit growth;credit expansion
          新增就业位置 new jobs; new job opportunities
          信贷规模考核 review the compliance with credit ceilings
          信号失真 distorted signals
          信托投资公司 trust and investment companies
          信息不对称 information asymmetry
          信息反馈 feedback (information)
          信息共享系统 information sharing system
          信息披露 information disclosure
          信用扩张 credir expansion
          信用?#20848;?credit rating
          姓"资"还?#20999;?quot;社" pertaining to socialism or capitalism; socialist or captialist
          行政措施 administrative measures
          需求膨胀 demand expansion; excessive demand
          虚伪存款 window-dressing deposits
          削减冗员 to shed excess labor force
          ?#30333;?rent seeking
          ?#26438;?#21453;弹 quick rebound

          养老基金 pension fund
          一刀切 universal application; non-discretionary implementation
          一级市场 primary market
          应收?#35789;?#21033;息 overdue interest
          银行网点 banking outlets
          赢利能力 profitability
          营业税 business tax
          硬贷款(商业贷款) commercial loans
          用地审批 to grant land use right
          有管理的浮动汇率 managed floating exchange rate
          证券投资 portfolio investment
          游资(热钱) hot money
          有市场的产品 marketable products
          有效供给 effective supply
          诱发新一轮经济扩张 trigger a new round of economic expansion
          逾期贷款 overdue loans; past-due loans
          与国际惯例接轨 to become compatible with internationally accepted practices
          与国际市场接轨 to integrate with the world market
          预算外支出(收入) off-budget (extra-budgetary) expenditure (revenue)
          预调 pre-emptive adjustment
          月环比 on a month-on-month basis; on a monthly basis

          再贷款 central bank lending
          在国际金融机构储备头寸 reserve position in international financial institutions
          在人行存款 deposits at (with) the central bank
          在途资金 fund in float
          增加农业投入 to increase investment in agriculture
          增势减缓 deceleration of growth; moderation of growth momentum
          增收节支措施 revenue-enhancing and expenditure control measures
          增长平稳 steady growth
          增值税 value-added tax (VAT)
          涨幅偏高 higher-than-desirable growth rate; excessive growth
          账外账 concealed accounts
          折旧 depreciation
          整顿 retrenchment; consolidation
          政策工具 policy instrument
          政策性业务 policy-related operations
          政策性银行 policy banks
          政策组合 policy mix
          政府干预 government intervention
          证券交易清算 settlement of securities transactions
          证券业务占款 funding of securities purchase
          支付困难 payment difficulty
          支付能力 payment capacity
          直接调控方式向 to increase the reliance on indirect policy instruments
          职能转换 transformation of functions
          职业道德 professional ethics
          指令性措施 mandatory measures
          指令性计划 mandatory plan; administered plan
          制定和实施货币政策 to conduct monetary policy; to formulate and implement monetary policy
          滞后影响 lagged effect
          中介机构 intermediaries
          中央与地方财政 delineation of fiscal responsibilities
          分灶吃饭重点建设 key construction projects; key investment project
          周期谷底 bottom (trough) of business cycle
          周转速度 velocity
          主办银行 main bank
          主权风险 sovereign risk
          注册资本 registered capital
          逐步到位 to phase in; phased implementation
          逐步取消 to phase out
          抓大放小 to seize the big and free the small (to maintain close oversight on the large state-ownedenterprises and subject smaller ones to market competition)
          专款专用 use of funds as ear-marked
          转贷 on-lending
          转轨经济 transition economy
          转机 turnaround
          转折关头 turning point
          准财政赤字 quasi-fiscal deficit
          准货币 quasi-money
          资本不足 under-capitalized
          资本充足率 capital adequacy ratio
          资本利润率 return on capital
          资本账户可?#19968;?capital account convertibility
          资不抵债 insolvent; insolvency
          资产负债表 balance sheet
          资产负债率 liability/asset ratio; ratio of liabilities to assets
          资产集中 asset concentration
          资产贡献率 asset contribution factor
          资产利润率 return on assets (ROA)
          资产质量 asset quality
          资产组合 asset portfolio
          资金成本 cost of funding; cost of capital; financing cost
          资金到位 fully funded (project)
          资金宽裕 to have sufficient funds
          资金利用率 fund utilization rate
          资金缺口 financing gap
          资金体外循环 financial disintermediation
          资金占压 funds tied up
          自筹投资项目 self-financed projects
          自有资金 equity fund
          综合国力 overall national strength (often measured by GDP)
          综合效益指标 overall efficiency indicator
          综合治理 comprehensive adjustment (retrenchment); over-haul
          总成交额 total contract value
          总交易量 total amount of transactions
          总成本 total cost
          最后贷款人 lender of last resort


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